Characteristics of all hospital admissions are registered by medical doctors on the basis of hospital discharge letters and coded by professional code clerks. The analyses were performed for all possible ADR-drug group combinations separately. For every ADR—drug group combination the number of hospitalizations per sex was divided by the total number of prescriptions within the study period for the involved drug group. METHODS We conducted a nationwide study of all ADR-related hospitalizations in the period between and in the Netherlands, which were selected from all 9 hospital admissions in this period. ADRs are a major healthcare issue, regularly leading to hospital admission, morbidity or death [ 18 — 23 ]. Given the size of the study population, the odds ratios OR are a good proxy for the RR. The E-code indicates the drug group involved in the ADR. Figure 2 shows the difference in hospital admissions between the sexes during the study period, taking into account the total number of prescriptions.
Data analysis We assessed the number of ADR-related hospital admissions and expressed this as the proportion of all acute admissions in the Netherlands between and Prescription data were combined with the data on hospitalisations based on drug s covered by the E-code. We have studied the differences between the sexes in hospital admission attributed to ADRs in a nationwide study over a 6 year period, taking into account the different ADRs, drug groups involved and differences in drug use. Differences between the sexes in risk for ADR-related hospitalization were found for antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs, antirheumatics, anticoagulants and salicylates, cardiovascular and neurological drugs, steroids and antibiotics. Our primary aim was to study differences in ADR-related hospitalizations between the sexes. A sex difference in pharmacodynamics, the effect of the body on the drug, is, for example, the occurrence of drug-induced torsade de pointes, which is much more frequent in women [ 16 , 17 ]. Another population-based study in the Netherlands showed a prevalence of ADR-related admissions of 5. Box , CA, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. We adjusted for the possible confounding effect of age using logistic regression analyses. The proportion of ADR-related hospitalizations increased with age from 0. METHODS We conducted a nationwide study of all ADR-related hospitalizations in the period between and in the Netherlands, which were selected from all 9 hospital admissions in this period. ADRs occurring during hospital admission were excluded from the analysis. Figure 1 shows the total number of ADR-related admissions per sex. In the Netherlands, three major studies focussed on different aspects of ADR-related hospitalizations in the Dutch population. More data on drug response in women are needed. For men, ADR-related admissions in this period accounted for 17 admissions 0. Separate calculations were performed for all ADR—drug group combinations to measure the RR for ADR related hospitalizations in relation to the total number of prescriptions per drug group. Women tend to have a higher risk of adverse drug reactions with a 1. Codes were combined as specific as possible. ADRs are a major healthcare issue, regularly leading to hospital admission, morbidity or death [ 18 — 23 ]. The risk of being hospitalized with an ADR varies between the sexes in the type of reaction and the causative drug. Risk factors for ADE-related admissions in this study were impaired cognition, presence of other diseases, living situation, renal function and non-adherence. ADRs regularly lead to hospital admissions. In hospital patients, ADRs were ranked from the fourth to sixth cause of death [ 24 ]. The analyses were performed for all possible ADR-drug group combinations separately. The E-code indicates the drug group involved in the ADR.
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